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Bone fracture – Causes, types, preventive measures

Our body is a combination of numerous muscles and tissues clustered around a skeleton of rigid bones aligned and adhered in a specific way to provide overall strength and stability while performing any activity. Unfortunately, these bones which are developed to be hard and strong, aren’t necessarily unbreakable. There are a variety of reasons which can lead to breakage of a bone commonly known as a fracture.

Causes of Bone Fracture

  • It is estimated that every person who drives a bike or a car is sure to face a road crash accident leading at least twice in his/her life. The city of Pune, especially, which has seen one of the highest road accident rates in the 21st Century, bone fracture injuries are the most common.
  • But accidents aren’t the only cause. Many bone fracture cases occur due to old-age and irrelevant accidents too. As we grow older, our bones start losing their agility and strength making them vulnerable to fracturing even without any accidents but mere wear and tear. 
  • There are some diseases that also cause brittleness in bones ultimately leading to unforeseen fractures.

Types of Bone Fracture

Considering the factors of movement and alignment, bone fractures can occur in four basic forms;

  • A closed fracture is when the bone cracks but does not tear through the muscles and skin hence being invisible to the naked eye.
  • An Open fracture is when the bone snaps is two or more parts and tears through the skin making a visible cut on the skin. It might rebound into the skin but the skin tear still remains.
  • A Displaced fracture is when a bone moves from its original alignment with the adjacent bones
  • A Non-displaced fracture is when the bone cracks but does not move from its original aligned position.

These being the basic forms, a bone fracture can be uniquely categorized in 6 different types based on the cause, position and severity of the broken bone;

Comminuted Fractures

This is the most severe type of fracture where a bone breaks into multiple small fragments. Such fractures usually occur in smaller bones like the ones in the hands and the foot if one faces a serious car or bike accident.

Oblique Fractures

Here, the bone cracks while making a particular angle to the axis of the fractured bone. This type of fractures usually occur when a bone experiences an external blow.

Transverse Fractures

When a bone cracks completely and becomes perpendicular (at 90 degrees) to the original axis of the bone, it is considered as a Transverse fracture which is also a severe form which requires an Orthopedic trauma surgeon to operate and rectify.

Greenstick Fracture

This type of fracture is common in children or in people with weaker bones. When a significant external force hits the bone causing it to bend. In some cases the other edge of the bend might crack but the inner edge remains unbroken. 

Stress Fractures

This type of fractures are caused due to external stress creating a hairline crack in a bone. Although not as severe, they cause serious discomfort and weakness. It is often experienced in sportsmen who undergo extreme levels of training.

Pathologic Fracture:

There are some diseases and disorders which infect and weaken the bones, causing them to lose their rigidity. Hence, such bones are more vulnerable to fractures and often referred to as Pathologic fractures. One of the most commonly known disorders which causes such fractures is Osteoporosis.

Preventive Measures

By following some simple rules and practices, we can prevent our bones from suffering from such severe conditions;

  • Always take the necessary safety precautions while driving a car or a bike such as seat belts, helmets, elbow and knee guards, etc.
  • Regularly exercise your bones and take medical check-ups
  • Maintain a healthy diet which includes proper intake of calcium and vitamins. Consult a dietitian if necessary.
  • If suggested by a doctor, take proper bone-building supplements and medications.


As we learned, boned fractures are a serious issue which requires an immediate and articulate response from a skilled orthopedic doctor. Alpha Hospital is especially known to excel in cases of bone fracture in Wakad, Pune. They provide a wide range of surgical treatment options which are suitable to an individual by employing the best orthopedic doctors in Wakad and around the city. To learn more and find the suitable treatment for trauma care in Wakad, visit their website or directly visit Alpha hospital to inquire about their outstanding services.

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